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NOTA DE PRENSA Posicionamiento del Colegio de Ingeniería en Informática de Andalucía sobre las aplicaciones de rastreo del Covid-19

Frente a las controversias manifestadas en prensa estos últimos días sobre las aplicaciones de rastreo del Covid-19, y en virtud del Artículo 1 punto 3, y del Artículo 5 puntos c), b) y g) de la Ley 2/1974 sobre Colegios Profesionales, de la Ley 11/2005 de creación del C.P.I.I.A., así como del punto d) del Artículo 3 de los estatutos del C.P.I.I.A., aprobados por orden de la Consejería de Justicia e Interior y publicado en BOJA en fecha de 15 de Febrero del 2013; este colegio, en cumplimiento estatutario de su fin social, se ve obligado a realizar las siguientes aclaraciones:

En el CPIIA consideramos que existen razones sobradas para utilizar las nuevas tecnologías que la Ingeniería Informática posibilita en el rastreo y seguimiento de los casos, dadas las decenas de miles de muertos que nuestra sociedad ha sufrido. Sin embargo, esto debe ser contrapesado con derechos recogidos constitucionalmente, principalmente con el derecho a la privacidad. Debemos y podemos salvar vidas, sin necesitar convertir a España en un estado policial con el derecho a la privacidad vulnerado de países como China.

España, muy a nuestro pesar, en principio optó por el protocolo Pepp-PT. Esto es un protocolo centralizado; es decir, hay un servidor central que potencialmente guarda toda la información. A partir de esta, no es complicado deducir dónde ha estado cada persona, y con quién ha estado, cada minuto de su vida. Por ello, este colegio considera que en una democracia con un mínimo de calidad el protocolo Pepp-PT no es adecuado. En esto, coincidimos con muchos de los impulsores del Pepp-PT, que finalmente decidieron abandonarlo por tener serias dudas sobre su transparencia y su privacidad.

Existe otro protocolo, el DP-3T. A diferencia del protocolo anterior, es un protocolo abierto, por lo que se puede auditar por terceros; y distribuido, por lo que, carece del servidor central que potencialmente guarda toda la información. Estas dos propiedades hacen que pase a ser extremadamente complicado deducir dónde ha estado cada persona, y con quién ha estado; no se podrá hacer de forma masiva, y si se hace, sería detectado por cualquiera que lo auditara. Es un protocolo que desde nuestro colegio consideramos que es inherentemente superior, y solo presenta ventajas -siempre que nos movamos en el marco de no buscar un estado policial con el derecho a la privacidad vulnerado de países como China-.

Finalmente el sentido común ha prevalecido. La aplicación desarrollada por el IMDEA, y que de forma inminente realizará su primer piloto, es una aplicación que no usa el protocolo Pepp-PT. Utilizará el protocolo DP-3T, como ya utilizan democracias occidentales como Suiza, Estonia, Finlandia o Alemania. Eso significa que ni los datos médicos, ni los datos de dónde ha estado cada uno y con quién ha estado,  se almacenarán en un servidor central bajo control del gobierno. Permitirá de forma anónima a los que descubran que se han infectado, avisar anónimamente a aquellas personas con las que ha estado -las conozca o no-, de que han interactuado con un infectado. La información de quién ha estado infectado, y quién ha interactuado con él no se almacena en un servidor, por lo que la privacidad médica también está asegurada. El protocolo tampoco permite el rastreo indiscriminado a lo largo del tiempo de personas infectadas y no infectadas.

 El funcionamiento del sistema, sobresimplificando, se basa en que cuando dos personas se encuentran a una distancia que posibilita la transmisión, sus teléfonos móviles se intercambian unos números inmensos, aleatorios y efímeros -que se usan durante minutos-. No se intercambian ni la posición, ni la identidad, ni ningún dato personal. Al no utilizar un teléfono móvil el mismo número de forma continua, no se puede utilizar esta información de forma directa para el espionaje masivo de ciudadanos. Estos identificadores intercambiados, se guardan en el propio teléfono. En ningún momento se envía la información de con quién se ha contactado a un servidor. Si alguien descubre que es informado, y lo notifica a través de la App, esta notificación se manda a un servidor, que contiene muchos de estos números aleatorios generados en los teléfonos móviles de los infectados, pero no a qué teléfono pertenece cada número. Cada cierto tiempo las aplicaciones contactan con el servidor, cotejan los números que han generado las personas con las que se ha cruzado con el servidor, y si tiene uno, se lo dice al usuario; sin dar mayor información sobre el proceso de cotejo, que se realiza en el propio teléfono. El protocolo, en principio, no manda información sobre el éxito del cotejo, salvo que el usuario lo haya configurado así, en cuyo caso manda la información mínima sobre las coincidencias del cotejo para su análisis epidemiológico.

Por ello, y a falta del análisis de la implementación concreta en el programa desarrollado por IMDEA, el protocolo escogido, el DP-3T, este colegio lo considera suficientemente seguro y respetuoso con la privacidad como para ser utilizado de forma masiva, especialmente en época de pandemia, para rastrear información de posibles contagios; preservando por lo tanto en todo momento los derechos fundamentales de los ciudadanos con las máximas garantías.

En Málaga, a 30 de junio de 2020.

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